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The historiography of the Anglo-Hanoverian Personal Union has experienced a remarkable sea change in recent years. Long considered at.
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- Like Father, Like Son. The Impact of the Hanoverian Family Dispute on British Policy
- franabpasbeza.cf - British Royal History - The Hanoverian Monarchs
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- 1714, A Glimpse of Secularity: The Church and the Hanoverian Succession
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Erin Griffey analyzes the full spectacle of the queen's represented image, not only through the well-known portraits by Sir Anthony van Dyck but also through her rich bed ensembles, tapestries, jewelry, clothing, and devotional goods-the objects that embodied and conveyed her royal power. Show title details on WorldCat. De vermelde prijzen zijn exclusief eventueel door uitgevers berekende vracht.
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Jahrhundert Oldenbourg, , ed. He specializes in seventeenth and eighteenth-century British and German history. His current research focuses on the symbolic representation of the British monarchy and state during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Evans and Peter H. The hanoverian Monarchy and the legacy of late Stuart.
Like Father, Like Son. The Impact of the Hanoverian Family Dispute on British Policy
Frequent disagreements occurred between its Patriot Whig and Tory sectors. These weaknesses helped Walpole to keep the Opposition at bay until But there were other reasons for his prolonged stay in power: he retained the support of the crown, resisted military involvement in Europe, pursued a moderate religious policy, and adopted a skillful economic policy. Moreover, in the general elections of and he was able to manipulate the electoral system to maintain himself in power.
George I died in June and was buried in Hanover. He was succeeded by his eldest son, who became George II. Initially the new king planned to dismiss Walpole and appoint his personal favourite, Spencer Compton, in his place. Because the monarch appointed and promoted peers, he had massive influence in the House of Lords. In addition, he appointed the 26 bishops of the Church of England, who also possessed seats in the House of Lords.
He alone could promote men to high office in the army, navy, diplomatic service, and bureaucracy. Walpole, however, could never take royal support for granted. George II was an irritable but by no means an insignificant figure who retained great influence in terms of patronage, military affairs, and foreign policy.
He demanded respect from his minister and had to be carefully managed. Once the Hanoverian succession had taken place, Whig ministers became as eager to remain at peace with France as the Tories had been. Walpole certainly adhered to this view, and for good reasons. War with France, moreover, was likely to lead to an invasion of Hanover, which was naturally unwelcome to George I and his successor. It would also give the Old Pretender the prospect of French military aid to launch an invasion against Britain itself.
This treaty was maintained by Walpole and Townshend throughout the s. By , however, it was attracting considerable criticism from the Opposition, and in the Second Treaty of Vienna , signed in March , Walpole jettisoned the Anglo-French alliance in favour of an alliance with Austria. But whether forming an alliance with the French or the Austrians, Walpole always considered it his primary aim to keep Britain out of war in continental Europe.
The Austrians asked for British aid under the terms of the Treaty of Vienna, but Walpole refused to give it. By keeping out of European entanglements for so long, Walpole appeased some of the traditionally insular Tory MPs. He also kept direct taxation low, which pleased many landed families. The land tax was cut to two shillings in the pound 10 percent in and to one shilling in the pound two years later. Traditionally the Whig party had supported wider concessions to the Protestant dissenters Protestants who believed in the doctrine of the Trinity but who refused to join in the worship of the state church, the Church of England.
They had been given freedom of worship under the Toleration Act of but were barred from full civil rights and access to university education in England.
franabpasbeza.cf - British Royal History - The Hanoverian Monarchs
In the Whigs had repealed two pieces of Tory legislation aimed against dissent, the Schism and the Occasional Conformity acts. These concessions ensured that Protestant dissenters would be able to establish their own educational academies and hold public office in the localities, if not in the state. There was always a danger, however, that too many concessions to Protestant dissent would alienate the Church of England , which enjoyed wide support in England and Wales. There were 5, parishes in these two countries, each containing at least one church served by a vicar minister or a curate his deputy.
For much of the 18th century these Anglican churches provided the only large, covered meeting places available outside of towns. They served as sources of spiritual comfort and also as centres for village social life. At religious services vicars would not only preach the word of God but also explain to congregations important national developments: wars, victories, and royal deaths and births. Thus churches often supplied the poor, the illiterate, and particularly women with the only political information available to them. Weakening the Church of England therefore struck Walpole as unwise, for at least two reasons.
Its ministers provided a vital service to the state by communicating political instruction to the people. The church, moreover, commanded massive popular loyalty, and assaults on its position would arouse nationwide discontent. Walpole therefore determined to reach an accommodation with the church, and in he came to an agreement with Edmund Gibson, Bishop of London.
1714, A Glimpse of Secularity: The Church and the Hanoverian Succession
Gibson was to ensure that only clergymen sympathetic to the Whig administration were appointed to influential positions in the Church of England. In return, Walpole undertook that no further extensive concessions would be made to Protestant dissenters. This arrangement continued until Walpole encouraged trade by abolishing some customs duties, but his main economic concerns were to reduce interest payments on the national debt and to foster agriculture by switching taxation from land to consumption.
He succeeded in reducing interest payments on the debt by 26 percent during his time in office, but his efforts to reduce the land tax in favour of more excises almost led to political disaster.
In he revived a duty on salt, which enabled him to cut the land tax to one shilling in the pound. In he proposed to levy excise taxes on the sale of wine and tobacco, but the Opposition in Parliament launched a ferocious and successful campaign against these proposals.
- Jeremy Gregory - The University of Nottingham;
- The Hanoverian Succession.
- Ebook The Hanoverian Succession Dynastic Politics And Monarchical Culture.
It claimed that excises weighed unfairly on the poor, whereas the land tax was mainly paid by the prosperous. In April he decided to retreat. The fiasco over the excise might have toppled Walpole, since a general election was scheduled for In fact, however, his administration retained a comfortable majority in the House of Commons.